Below are research articles related to Extended Scope and Advanced Practice physiotherapy. Much of this work has been collated by the Extended Scope Practitioners Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Professional Network

Sections below are divided into:

  •  Extended/Advanced Practice Roles
  • Primary Care
  • Orthopaedics
  • Rheumatology
  • Accident and Emergency
  • Paediatrics
  • Lower Limb
  • Upper Limb
  • Spinal

Within these sections articles are sorted by author alphabetically


Adams, T. L. (2014). Interprofessional Conflict. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Health, Illness, Behavior, and Society, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Buttress, S. and T. Marangon (2008). “Legal issues of extended practice: Where does the responsibility lie?” Radiography 14(SUPP 1): e33-e38.

Comans, T., et al. (2011). “How do allied health professionals evaluate new models of care? What are we measuring and why?” Journal for Healthcare Quality 33(4): 19-28.

CSP (2008). Scope of Physiotherapy Practice. London, The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Available at: (Accessed 21 January 2009).

CSP (2011). “Extended scope practitioners.” Available at: (Accessed 11 February 2011).

Dowling, S., et al. (1995). “With nurse practitioners, who needs house officers?” BMJ 311(7000): 309-313.

Duffy, K., et al. (2014). “Role development: barriers, enablers and the function of a national organisation.” Nursing Management 21(3): 31-37.

Foster, N., et al. (2011). “The evidence for and against ‘PhysioDirect’ telephone assessment and advice services.” Physiotherapy 97(1): 78-82.

Galley, P. (1977). “Physiotherapists as first contact practitioners – new challenges and responsibilities in Australia.” Physiotherapy 63(8): 246-248.

Gardiner, J. and S. Wagstaff (2001). “Extended scope physiotherapy: the way towards consultant physiotherapists?” Physiotherapy 87(1): 2-3.

Griffiths, S. (2012). “Demonstrating clinical quality and cost effectiveness: can extended scope physiotherapists rise to the challenge?” International Musculoskeletal Medicine 34(3): 85-86.

Hogg, P., et al. (1997). “Extended roles of radiographers working in nuclear medicine: A survey of current practice.” Radiography 3(3): 179-190.

Hoskins, R. (2012). “Interprofessional working or role substitution? A discussion of the emerging roles in emergency care.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(8): 1894-1903.

Hourigan, P. and C. Weatherley (1998). “Developments in physiotherapy: the extended scope practitioner.” Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Management Spring: 3- 5.

Iglehart, J. K. (2013). “Expanding the role of advanced nurse practitioners — Risks and Rewards.” New England Journal of Medicine 368(20): 1935-1941.

James, J. and R. Stuart (1975). “Expanded role for the physical therapist: screening musculoskeletal disorders.” Physical Therapy 55(2): 121-132.

Kersten, P., et al. (2007). “Physiotherapy extended scope of practice – who is doing what and why?” Physiotherapy 93: 235-242.

Laurant, M., et al. (2005) Substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001271.pub2

McPherson, K., et al. (2006). “A systematic review of evidence about extended roles for allied health professionals.” Journal of Health Services Research and Policy. 11(Number 4): 240-247.

McPherson, K., et al. (2005). Extended roles for allied health professionals in the NHS. Report for the National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation R&D (NCCSDO). Available at: (Accessed 08 January 2011).

McPherson, K. and D. Reid (2007). “New roles in health care: what are the key questions?” Medical Journal of Australia 186(12): 614-615.

Miller, L., et al. (2011). “Training and development for radiographers’ extended roles: a case of ad hoc implementation.” Health Services Management Research 24(2): 60-68.

Milligan, J. (2003). “Physiotherapists working as extended scope practitioners.” British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 10(Number 1): 6-11.

Morris, J., et al. (2014) Principles to guide sustainable implementation of extended- scope-of-practice physiotherapy workforce redesign initiatives in Australia: stakeholder perspectives, barriers, supports, and incentives. J Multidiscip Healthc. 7, 249-258. DOI: 10.2147/JMDH.S59473

Oakley, C and Shacklady, C. (2015) The clinical effectiveness of the extended scope physiotherapist role in musculoskeletal triage: a systematic review. Musculoskeletal Care. 2015 Mar 11. doi: 10.1002/msc.1100. [Epub ahead of print]

Reeve, S. and S. May (2009). “Exploration of patients’ perspectives of quality within an extended scope physiotherapists’ spinal screening service.” Physiotherapy Theory and Practice: An International Journal of Physiotherapy 25(8): 533 – 543.

Robarts, S., et al. (2008). “A framework for the development and implementation of an advanced practice role for physiotherapists that improves access and quality of care for patients.” Healthcare Quarterly 11(2): 67-75.

Ruston, S. (2008). “Extended scope practitioners and clinical specialists: A place in rural health?” Australian Journal of Rural Health 16: 120-123.

Sanders, T., et al. (2014). “Implementing change in physiotherapy: professions, contexts and interventions.” Journal of Health Organization and Management 28(1): 96-114.

Sibbald, B., et al. (2004). “Changing the skill-mix of the health care workforce.” J Health Serv Res Policy 9(SUPP1): 28-38.

Stamm, T. and J. Hill (2011). “Extended roles of non-physician health professionals and innovative models of care within Europe: results from a web-based survey.” Musculoskeletal Care 9(2): 93-101.

Thompson, C., et al. (2014). HWA Expanded Scopes of Practice Program evaluation: Physiotherapists in the emergency department sub-project: final report Australian Health Service Research Institute, University of Wollongong. Available at: (Accessed 28 August 2014).

Wagstaff, S. (2001). “Extended Scope Physiotherapy.” Physiotherapy 87(1): 2-3.

Welch, H., et al. (2012). “An audit of patient satisfaction on extended scope physiotherapy (ESP) musculoskeletal triage service following initial assessment.” Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (British Volume) 94-B(SUPP X): 098.

Welsh, V., et al. (2014). “Extending the authority for sickness certification beyond the medical profession: the importance of ‘boundary work’.” BMC Family Practice 15(1): 1- 11.


Ferguson, S. and F. Cook (2011). “”Is a primary care orthopaedic interface service sustainable in a continually changing political and healthcare environment?”.” Clinical Governance: An International Journal 16(2): 137-147.

Hattam, P. (2003). “Effectiveness of Secondary Referral by Extended Scope Physiotherapists.” Physiotherapy 89(5): 324-324.

Hattam, P. (2004). “The effectiveness of orthopaedic triage by extended scope physiotherapists.” Clinical Governance: An International Journal 9: 244-252.

Hattam, P. and A. Smeatham (1999). “Evaluation of an orthopaedic screening service in primary care.” British Journal of Clinical Governance 4(2): 45-49.

Ludvigsson, M. and P. Enthoven (2011). “Evaluation of physiotherapists as primary assessors of patients with musculoskeletal disorders seeking primary health care.” Physiotherapy 98(2): 131-137.

Murphy, D., et al. (2011). The establishment of a primary spine care practitioner and its benefits to healthcare reform in the United States. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 19, DOI: 10.1186/2045-709X-19-17

Patel, S., et al. (2011). “The accuracy of primary care teams in diagnosing disorders of the shoulder.” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17(1): 118-122.

Smith, G. (2011). “Review of steroid-only injection therapy clinics performed by a physiotherapist working in primary care.” International Musculoskeletal Medicine 33(2): 61-63.


Aiken, A., et al. (2008). “Easing the burden for joint replacement wait times: the role of the expanded practice physiotherapist.” Healthcare Quarterly 11(2): 62-66.

Aiken, A. and M. McColl (2008). “Diagnostic and treatment concordance between a physiotherapist and an orthopedic surgeon – A pilot study.” Journal of Interprofessional Care 22: 253-261.

Ashmore, K., et al. (2014). “Triage of knee pain by an Extended Scope Physiotherapist (ESP) in an orthopaedic clinic: A clinical audit.” Physiotherapy Practice and Research 35(1): 25-32.

Bernstein, I. (2013). “Musculoskeletal services in Ealing 2013: Care closer to home.” International Musculoskeletal Medicine 35(4): 131-140.

Bryson, D. J., et al. (2013). “Specialist Orthopaedic Nurses: Frontline for Fracture Clinic Referrals.” Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 95(9): 1-4.

Burn, D. and E. Beeson (2014). “Orthopaedic triage: cost effectiveness, diagnostic/surgical and management rates.” Clinical Governance: An International Journal, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp.126 – 136 19(2): 126-136.

Burn, D., et al. (2014) General Practitioners’ Views About an Orthopaedic Clinical Assessment Service. Physiotherapy Research International 19, 176-185 DOI: 10.1002/pri.1581

Byles, S. and R. Ling (1989). “Orthopaedic Out-patients — A Fresh Approach.” Physiotherapy 75(7): 435-437.

Comans, T., et al. (2014) Cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapist-led service for orthopaedic outpatients. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 19, 216-223. DOI: 10.1177/1355819614533675

Coyle, A. and C. Carpenter (2011) Patient experiences of their clinical management by Extended Scope Physiotherapists following attendance at an Orthopaedic Clinical Assessment Service. The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 1, 534-541 DOI:10.5750/ijpcm.v1i3.114. Available at: (Accessed 29 August 2014).

Daker-White, G., et al. (1999). “A randomised controlled trial. Shifting boundaries of doctors and physiotherapists in orthopaedic outpatient departments.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 53(10): 643-650.

Dawson, L. and F. Ghazi (2004). “The experience of physiotherapy extended scope practitioners in orthopaedic outpatient clinics.” Physiotherapy 90: 210-216.

Desmeules, F., et al. (2012). “Advanced practice physiotherapy in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 13(1): 107.

Desmeules, F., et al. (2013). “Validation of an advanced practice physiotherapy model of care in an orthopaedic outpatient clinic.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 14(1): 162.

Durrell, S. (1996). “Expanding the scope of physiotherapy: clinical physiotherapy specialists in consultants’ clinics.” Manual Therapy 1(4): 210-213.

Gardiner, J. and P. Turner (2002). “Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of internal derangement of the knee by extended scope physiotherapists and orthopaedic doctors.” Physiotherapy. 88(Number 3): 153-157.

Gillis, K., et al. (2014) Physiotherapy Extended-Role Practitioner for Individuals with Hip and Knee Arthritis: Patient Perspectives of a Rural/Urban Partnership. Physiotherapy Canada 66 25-32 DOI: 10.3138/ptc.2012-55.

Hockin, J. and G. Bannister (1994). “Extended role of a physiotherapist in an outpatient clinic ” Physiotherapy 80(5): 281-284.

Hockin, J. and G. Bannister (1994). “The Extended Role of a Physiotherapist in an Out- patient Orthopaedic Clinic.” Physiotherapy 80(5): 281-284.

Hockin, J. and G. Bannister (1995). “The extended role of a physiotherapist in an out- patient clinic.” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 77 (SUPP2): 71-73.

Kennedy, D., et al. (2010). “Patients Are Satisfied with Advanced Practice Physiotherapists in a Role Traditionally Performed by Orthopaedic Surgeons.” Physiotherapy Canada 62(4): 298-305.

MacKay, C., et al. (2009). “Expanding roles in orthopaedic care: a comparison of physiotherapist and orthopaedic surgeon recommendations for triage.” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15(1): 178-183.

MacKay, C., et al. (2012). “A single group follow-up study of non-surgical patients seen by physiotherapists working in expanded roles in orthopaedic departments: recall of recommendations, change in exercise and self-efficacy.” BMC Research Notes 5(1): 669.

Maddison, P., et al. (2004). “Improved access and targeting of musculoskeletal services in northwest Wales: targeting early access to musculoskeletal services (TEAMS) approach.” British Medical Journal 329(7478): 1325-1327.

Morris, J., et al. (2012). “Effectiveness of a physiotherapy-initiated telephone triage of orthopedic waitlist patients.” Patient Related Outcome Measures 2: 151-159.

Napier, C., et al. (2013). “A Physiotherapy Triage Service for Orthopaedic Surgery: An Effective Strategy for Reducing Wait Times.” Physiotherapy Canada 65(4): 358-363.

Newsome, R., et al. (2009). “Extended scope physiotherapists: how often does their clinical diagnosis agree with the MRI scan?” J Bone Joint Surg Br 91-B(SUPP_III): 489.

Oldmeadow, L., et al. (2007). “Experienced physiotherapists as gatekeepers to hospital orthopaedic outpatient care.” Med J Aust 186: 625 – 628.

Owen, G. (1998). “Extended scope practitioners in orthopaedic outpatient clinics: a growing field in the UK.” Rehabilitation Management International 8(6): 6-11.

Parfitt, N., Smeatham, A., Timperley, J., Hubble, M., & Gie, G. (2012). “Direct Listing for Total Hip Replacement (THR) by Primary Care Physiotherapists. ” Clinical Governance: An International Journal 17(3): 210-216.

Pearse, E., et al. (2006). “The extended scope physiotherapist in orthopaedic out- patients – an audit.” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 88(Number 7): 653-655.

Rabey, M., et al. (2009). “Orthopaedic physiotherapy practitioners. Surgical and radiological referral rates.” Clinical Governance: An International Journal. 14(1): 15-19.

Roland, M., et al. (1991). “Improving care: a study of orthopaedic outpatient referrals.” BMJ 302: 1124 – 1128.

Samsson, K. S. and M. E. H. Larsson (2014). “Physiotherapy triage assessment of patients referred for orthopaedic consultation – Long-term follow-up of health-related quality of life, pain-related disability and sick leave.” Manual Therapy DOI: 10.1016/j.math.2014.06.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Stanhope, J., et al. (2012). “Extended scope physiotherapy roles for orthopedic outpatients: an update systematic review of the literature.” Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 2012:5 37 – 45.

Trompeter, A., et al. (2010). “Clinical diagnosis of soft tissue injuries to the knee by physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons: Is there a difference between the two professions?” Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal 28: 16-18.

Weale, A. and G. Bannister (1995). “Who should see orthopaedic outpatients – physiotherapists or surgeons?” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 77(SUPP 2): 71-73.

Weston-Simons, J. S., et al. (2012). “The role of the ESP in orthopaedics.” International Musculoskeletal Medicine 34(3): 87-91.


Campos, A., et al. (2002). “The physical therapy practitioner (PTP) in pediatric rheumatology: high level of patient and parent satisfaction with services.” Physiother Can 54: 32 – 36.

Campos, A., et al. (2001). “The physical therapy practitioner: an expanded role for physical therapy in pediatric rheumatology.” Physiotherapy Canada 53(4): 282-297.

Lineker, S., et al. (2011). “Arthritis Extended-Role Practitioners: Impact on Community Practice (An Exploratory Study).” Physiotherapy Canada 63(4): 434-442

Lundon, K., et al. (2011). “Development and Early Evaluation of an Inter-professional Post-licensure Education Programme for Extended Practice Roles in Arthritis Care.” Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada 63(1): 94-103.

Lundon, K., et al. (2008). “Leading change in the transformation of arthritis care: development of an inter-professional academic-clinical education training model.” Healthcare Quarterly 11(3): 62-68.

MacKay, C., et al. (2005). An exploration of comprehensive interdisciplinary models for arthritis. Arthritis Community Research & Evaluation Unit (ACREU). Toronto: Canada. Available at: (Accessed 26 December 2010).

Matthias, U., Gendi, N., Sanath Kumar, N., Daley, M., Payne, A., Devereux, A., et al. (2006). “The impact of extended scope practitioner (ESP) physiotherapy on the management of musculoskeletal disorders: an audit of a newly introduced service. .” Rheumatology 45, 4(SUPP. 1), i128.

Stanhope, J., et al. (2012). “The role of extended scope physiotherapists in managing patients with inflammatory arthropathies: A systematic review.” Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews(4): 49-55.

Van Rossen, L. and R. H. Withrington (2012) Improving the Standard of Care for People with Ankylosing Spondylitis and a New Approach to Developing Specialist ESP-Led AS Clinics. Musculoskeletal Care 10, 171-177 DOI: 10.1002/msc.1015


Anaf, S. and L. Sheppard (2007a). “Physiotherapy as a clinical service in emergency departments: a narrative review.” Physiotherapy 93: 243-252.

Anaf, S. and L. Sheppard (2010). “Lost in translation? How patients perceive the extended scope of physiotherapy in the emergency department.” Physiotherapy 96(2): 160-168.

Bethel, J. (2005). “The role of the physiotherapist practitioner in emergency departments: a critical appraisal.” Emergency Nurse 13(2): 26-31.

Crane, J. and C. Delany (2013). “Physiotherapists in emergency departments: responsibilities, accountability and education.” Physiotherapy 99(2): 95-100.

Dahabreh, Z., et al. (2007). “The efficacy of a physiotherapy led acute knee injury clinic in a teaching hospital.” Injury Extra 38(4): 102-102.

Farrell, S. F. (2014) Can physiotherapists contribute to care in the emergency department? Australas Med J. 7, 315-317. DOI: 10.4066/AMJ.2014.2183

Gill, S. D. and J. Stella (2013) Implementation and performance evaluation of an emergency department primary practitioner physiotherapy service for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Emergency Medicine Australasia 25, 558-564 DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.12134

Griffiths, J. R., et al. (2013). “Referrals to acute physiotherapy from the emergency department: an audit.” Emergency Medicine Journal 30(5): 428-429.

Guengerich, M., et al. (2013). “Emergency department primary contact physiotherapists improve patient flow for musculoskeletal patients.” International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 20(8): 396-402.

Hill, H., et al. (2013). “A systematic review of the activity and impact of emergency care practitioners in the NHS.” Emergency Medicine Journal 31(10): 853-860.

Hoskins, R. (2010) Evaluating new roles within emergency care: A literature review. International Emergency Nursing 19, 125-140 DOI: 10.1016/j.ienj.2010.09.003

Jesudason, C., et al. (2011) A physiotherapy service to an emergency extended care unit does not decrease admission rates to hospital: a randomised trial. Emergency Medicine Journal 29, 664-669 DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2011-200157

Jibuike, O., et al. (2003). “Management of soft tissue knee injuries in an accident and emergency department: the effect of the introduction of a physiotherapy practitioner.” Emergency Medicine Journal 20: 37-39.

Kilner, E. (2011). “What evidence is there that a physiotherapy service in the emergency department improves health outcomes? A systematic review.” J Health Serv Res Policy 16(1): 51-58.

Kilner, E. and L. Sheppard (2010). “The ‘lone ranger’: a descriptive study of physiotherapy practice in Australian emergency departments.” Physiotherapy 96(3): 248-256.

Lebec, M. T. (2010). “Extended scope physiotherapists in the emergency department: one step further.” Physical Therapy Reviews 15(5): 420-421.

Lefmann, S. A. and L. A. Sheppard (2014) Perceptions of emergency department staff of the role of physiotherapists in the system: A qualitative investigation. Physiotherapy 100, 86-91 DOI:

McClellan, C., et al. (2009). “Clinical and cost effectiveness of different emergency department healthcare professionals in the management of musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries.” Emergency Medicine Journal 26(SUPP 1): 10.

McClellan, C., et al. (2010). “Extended scope physiotherapists in the emergency department: a literature review.” Physical Therapy Reviews 15: 106-111.

McClellan, C. M., et al. (2012) A randomised trial comparing the clinical effectiveness of different emergency department healthcare professionals in soft tissue injury management. BMJ Open 2, DOI: e001092. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001092.

McClellan, C., et al. (2006). “Effect of an extended scope physiotherapy service on patient satisfaction and the outcome of soft tissue injuries in an adult emergency department.” Emerg Med J 23(5): 384-387.

McClellan, C., et al. (2006a). “Extended scope physiotherapists in the emergency department: what do patients think?” Emerg Med J 25: 384-387.

Richardson, B., et al. (2005). “Randomised controlled trial and cost consequences study comparing initial physiotherapy assessment and management with routine practice for selected patients in an accident and emergency department of an acute hospital.” Emerg Med J; 22(2): 87-92.

Sutton, M., et al. (2015) “Primary contact physiotherapists manage a minor trauma caseload in the emergency department without misdiagnoses or adverse events: an observational study.”Journal of Physiotherapy; 61(2): 77 – 80

Taylor, N., et al. (2011). “Primary contact physiotherapy in emergency departments can reduce length of stay for patients with peripheral musculoskeletal injuries compared with secondary contact physiotherapy: a prospective non-randomised controlled trial.” Physiotherapy 97(2): 107-114.


Belthur, M., et al. (2003). “A physiotherapy specialist clinic in paediatric orthopaedics: is it effective?” Postgraduate Medicine 79: 699-702.


Smith, T. O., et al. (2012). “Reliability of the Jones patellofemoral osteoarthritis score for radiological assessment of patellofemoral degenerative changes: comparing a physiotherapist to doctors.” Physiotherapy Canada 64(3): 257-261.

Taylor, C. F., et al. (2012). “The use of extended scope practitioners in foot and ankle clinics in Torbay Hospital, our experiences from May 2009 to July 2009.” Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, British Volume 94-B(SUPP XII): 14.


Branstiter, G. and F. Sandford (2010). “Extended scope hand therapist led acute traumatic wrist injury clinic.” Journal of Hand Therapy 23(4): e27-e27.

Ellis, B. and P. Kersten (2001). “An exploration of the developing role of hand therapists as extended scope practitioners.” British Journal of Hand Therapy 6(4): 126-130.

Ellis, B. and P. Kersten (2002). “The developing role of hand therapists within the hand surgery and medicine services: an exploration of doctors’ views.” Hand Therapy 7(4): 119-123.

Ellis, B., et al. (2005). “A Delphi study of the role parameters and requirements of extended scope practice in hand therapy.” Hand Therapy 10(3-4): 80-86.

Elnikety, S., et al. (2012). “Patient satisfaction with postoperative follow-up by a hand therapist.” Musculoskeletal Care 10(1): 39-42.

Harrison, J., et al. (2001). “Reducing waiting times: physiotherapy shoulder assessment clinic.” International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. 8(2): 57-59.

McMullen, E. (2013). “A survey of UK hand therapists’ confidence in the interpretation of hand radiographs.” Hand Therapy 18(1): 24-28.

Oakes, H. (2009). “Orthopaedic shoulder clinic diagnosis and treatment plan audit.” Clinical Governance: An International Journal 14(2): 126-133.

O’Brien, L., et al. (2013). “The impact of a hand therapy screening and management clinic for patients referred for surgical opinion in an Australian public hospital.” Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists 26(4): 318-322.

Peck, F., et al. (2001). “The introduction of practitioner-led hand clinics in south Manchester.” British Journal of Hand Therapy 6(2): 44-47.

Peck, F., et al. (2004). “An evaluation of the influence of practitioner led hand clinics on rupture rates following primary tendon repair in the hand.” British Journal of Hand Therapy 57(1): 45-49.

Peck, F. H. and S. Turner (2013). “The development of a therapy-led closed hand trauma clinic.” Hand Therapy 18(3): 87-91.

Razmjou, H., et al. (2012). “Evaluation of an advanced-practice physical therapist in a specialty shoulder clinic: diagnostic agreement and effect on wait times.” Physiotherapy Canada 65(1): 46-55.


Bath, B., et al. (2012). “A spinal triage programme delivered by physiotherapists in collaboration with orthopaedic Surgeons.” Physiotherapy Canada 64(4): 356-366.

Bath, B. and P. Pahwa (2012). “A physiotherapy triage assessment service for people with low back disorders: evaluation of short-term outcomes.” Patient Related Outcome Measures, 3: 9-19.

Blackburn, M. S., et al. (2009). “Physiotherapy-led triage clinic for low back pain.” Australian Health Review 33(4): 663-670.

Heywood, J. (2005). “Specialist physiotherapists in orthopaedic triage – the results of a military spinal triage clinic.” Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 151: 152-156.

Hindmarsh, D., et al. (2011). “Can physiotherapists recognise cauda equina syndrome (CES) better than doctors?” Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, British Volume 93-B(SUPP II): 196.

Hourigan, P. and C. Weatherley (1994). “Initial assessment and follow-up by a physiotherapist of patients with back pain referred to a spinal clinic.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 87(4): 213-214.

Hourigan, P. and C. Weatherley (1995). “The physiotherapist as an orthopaedic assistant in a back pain clinic.” Physiotherapy 81: 546-548.

Hourigan, P., et al. (2014) How physios can take the pressure off surgery services. HSS Journal. Available at: take-the-pressure-off-surgery-services/5072218.article#.VCfuYlc1B8E. (Accessed 28 September 2014).

Inman, D. A., et al. (2009). “An evaluation of physiotherapy extended scope practitioner (ESP) use of MRI in patients presenting with low back pain: a two-centre study.” Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, British Volume 91-B(SUPP III): 487.

Murphy, S., et al. (2013). “The role of clinical specialist Physiotherapists in the management of low back pain in a Spinal Triage Clinic.” Irish Journal of Medical Science: 1-8.

Murray, M. M. (2011). “Reflections on the development of nurse-led back pain triage clinics in the UK.” International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing 15(3): 113- 120.

Newsome, R. J., et al. (2012). “Measuring competencies within the orthopaedic spinal service: MRI requesting rights by spinal extended scope physiotherapists within secondary care one year on.” Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, British Volume 94-B(SUPP XXVI): 84.

Parmar, V., et al. (2014). “Comparison of referrals for lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging from physiotherapists, primary care and secondary care: how should referral pathways be optimised?” Physiotherapy. DOI: 10.1016/ [Epub ahead of print]

Weatherley, C. and P. Hourigan (1998). “Triage of back pain by physiotherapists in orthopaedic clinics.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 91(7): 377-379.



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